Wednesday, 23 May 2018

CBSE Class 10 - Geography - Resource and Development (Q and A) (#cbsenotes)(#eduvictors)

Resources and development (Q & A)

CBSE Class 10 - Geography - Resource and Development (Q and A) (#cbsenotes)(#eduvictors)

Q1: What is Land Degradation? State the human activities which are responsible for land degradation in India?

Answer: When the land becomes unfit for cultivation, it is called land degradation. Activities responsible for land degradation in India are:
Activities mining
Overgrazing
Over irrigation
Mineral processing
Industrial effluents

Activities mining
Surface mining leads to degradation of land. Mining sites are often abandoned after excavation work is complete, leaving deep scars and traces of overburdening. For example deforestation in states like Chhattisgarh Madhya Pradesh and Odisha is due to mining.



Overgrazing
Due to overgrazing, the vegetation is damaged and the ground becomes liable to erosion. In Gujarat Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra land is degraded due to overgrazing.

Over irrigation
It is responsible for land degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity of the soil.
For example Punjab Haryana and western UP.

Mineral processing
The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land.

Industrial effluents
In recent years, industrial effluents and waste has become a major source of land degradation and water pollution in several parts of the country.


Q2: State the methods adopted to control land degradation.

Answer: Measures adopted to control land degradation are:

1. Afforestation - Planting shelter belts of plants growing thorny bushes to stabilize stacks and dudes sand dunes.
2. Proper management of grazing that is to control over grazing
3. Control on mining activities
4. Proper management of waste wastelands
5. Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment.


Q3: What is soil? Why is it important?

Answer: Soil is the topmost thin layer of the earth crust which is loose, fragmented and useful for the plants.

Importance of soil
Soil is the medium of plant growth and support different types of living organisms on the earth.


Q4: List the factors which influence the formation of soil.

Answer: Factors which influence the formation of soil are:
1. Relief
On steep slopes water flow swiftly and hinders soil formation. There may also be soil erosion in areas of steep slope.

2. Parent or Bedrock 
The material for soil formation is mainly derived from rocks and it is termed as parent material. Surface rocks are exposed to the process of weathering decay and decomposition.
In this process, surface rocks are converted into fine grains and provide base for soil formation.
For example the soil of Peninsular plateau is closely related to parental material.

3. Climate 
It is the most important factors. It determines the rate ofweathering, quantity of water seeping into the soil and type of microorganism present in the soil.

4. Vegetation and living organisms: 
The decayed plants and animals enrich the soil by providing humus to this. It increases the fertility of the soil.

5. Time
In provides maturity to the soil. The soil formation is a slow process.

6. Agents of gradation 
They help in transporting the soil from one place to another. Various agents of gradation are glacier, wind, rivers, waves and running water.


Q5: What is gradation? List the main agents of gradation.

Answer: Gradation is the process that changes the surface features of the earth through agents suchas gravity, running water, waves, wind, and glaciers. Gradation includes erosion,transportation and deposition of earth materials.

Various agents of Gradation are:

★ RUNNING WATER
★ GLACIAL ICE
★ WIND
★ WAVES
★ RIVERS


Q6: Different type of soils found in India give a brief account of each classification of soil found in India

Answer: Classification of soils found in India
1. Alluvial soil
2. Black soil
3. Red and yellow soil
4. Laterite soil
5. Arid soil
6. Forest soil


Q7: Where is alluvial soil found in India?

Answer: Alluvial soil area found in northern plain, parts of Rajasthan and Gujarat, eastern coastal plains(delta of Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and Kaveri rivers.


Q8: How is alluvial soil formed?

Answer: Formation soil is formed due to the deposition of silt brought down by the Himalayan River system - the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.


Q9: What is the chemical composition of alluvial soil?

Answer: Chemical composition soil contains adequate proportion of phosphoric acid, potash and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane including pulses crops etc.


Q10: List two features of alluvial soil.

Answer: Features of alluvial soil are:
1. Alluvial soil is very fertile soil and is widely spread
2. Alluvial soil can be classified as follows basis of the size of the brain sand silt clay


Q11: On the basis of age, name the types of alluvial soil. 

Answer: On the basis of their age:
- Khadar
- Bangar


Q12: On the basis of size of the grain, name the types of alluvial soil.

Answer: On the basis of size of the grain:
  - sand
  - silt
  - clay

Inland: Soil particles are big in size towards the river valleys.
In upper reaches of the river valley: soils are coarse near the place of the slope. Such soils are found in piedmont plains such as Duars and Terai.


Q13: Distinguish between Khadar and Bangar soil.

Answer: On the basis of their age Khadar and Bangar

Khader:
1. It is new alluvial.
2. It has very fine particles.
3. It is more fertile.

Bangar: 
1. It is old alluvial.
2. It has higher concentration of Kanker nodules.
3. It is less fertile


Q14: Where is black soil soil found in India?

Answer:  Black soil or red soil is found in Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over Northwest Deccan Plateau. They cover the plateau of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and extend in south east direction along the Godavari and Krishna valleys.

Q15: How is black soil formed?

Answer: Climatic condition along with the parent Rock material are the important fact for the formation of the soil. The black soil is formed by the weathering of lava (igneous rocks) and cooling of lava after a volcanic eruption. It is rich in humus, iron and also contain high quality of magnesia, lime and alumina.

Q16: What is the chemical composition of black soil?

Answer: Chemical composition black soil such as  calcium carbonate,  magnesium,  potash and  lime. This is generally poor in phosphoric contents. It is rich in humus, iron and also contain high quality of magnesia, lime and alumina.


Q17: List the important features of black soil.

Answer: Features are:
1. Extremely fine particles that is clay material.
2. It is well known for its capacity to hold moisture.
3. It develops deep cracks during hot weather which helps in proper aeration of the soil.
4. The soil is sticky when wet and is difficult to work on unless tilted, immediately after the first shower or during the pre monsoon. 5. It is black in colour an ideal for growing cotton.


Q18: Where is red and yellow soil found and how is it formed?

Answer: These soils  are found in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan Plateau, parts of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, southern part of middle Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.


Formation:  The soil develops a crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall.


Q19: List two features of red and yellow soil.

Answer: Features are:
1. The soil develops reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks.
2. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.



Q20: Where is laterite soil found in India?

Answer: Laterite soil found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.


Q21: Which soil is formed due to leaching? List its features.

Answer: Laterite Soil.
Formation: 
Laterite soils develops in area receiving heavy rainfall and having high temperature is formed due to reach it leaching.

Features: 
Humus content of the soil is low because most of the microorganisms particularly the decomposers like bacteria gets destroyed due to high temperature

You suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manure and fertilizers


Q22: Give examples of crops cultivated in laterite soil.

Answer:
Crops cultivated tea and coffee is cultivated in hilly areas of Karnataka Kerala and Tamilnadu

Cashew nut is cultivated in Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh and Kerala only after adopting soil conservation techniques


Q23: Where in India, we find arid soil? List its features.

Answer:
Arid soil is abundant in Rajasthan.
Features:
1.  It ranges from black to brown colour.
2.  Sandy in texture and Saline nature.
3.  In some areas, salt content is high and common salt is obtained by evaporation of water.
4.  Due to the dry climate, high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.
5.  The lowest horizon of the soils are occupied by kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwords.
6.  The kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict infiltration of water.
7.  After proper irrigation these soils become cultivated e.g. Western Rajasthan


Q24: List salient features of forest soil.

Answer:
1. Forest soil area are found in hilly and mountaineous areas where sufficient rainforests are available.
2. According to the mountain environment, the texture of the soil varies,
3. They are loamy and wilty in valley side and coarse grained in the upper slopes.
4. In snow covered areas of Himalayas, these soil experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content.
5. The soil found in the lower parts of the valleys particularly on the river terraces and  alluvial fans are fertile.


Q25: What is soil erosion? How is it caused?

Answer:
The removal of soil specially top fertile layer, either naturally i.e. by wind and water or as a result of human action is called soil erosion.

Causes of soil erosion:
Natural Causes: Wind, Glacier, water etc.
Human Causes: Deforestation, overgrazing, construction, mining and defective method of farming.


Q26: Name the types of soil erosion. List the type of soil erosion.

Answer:  Types of soil erosion are:
Gully erosion
Sheet erosion
Wind erosion


Q27: What is Gully erosion?

Answer:
✤ When the water cuts through the clayey soil and makes deep channels as gullies, it is called gully erosion.
✤ The land becomes unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land. For example in Chambal basin, such badlands are called ravines.


Q28: What is sheet erosion?

Answer: Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. In such cases the top soil is washed away, this is known as sheet erosion.


Q29: What is wind erosion?

Answer: Wind erosion is a natural process that moves soil from one location to another by wind power. Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land is known as wind erosion.


Q30: What are the methods to conserve soil?
Or
Q: What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in hilly areas?

Answer:
1. Contour ploughing:
Ploughing along the contour line can reduce the flow of water down the slope. This is called control plouging.

2. Terrace farming 
Steps can be cut on the slopes making terraces, this reduces soil erosion. For example Western and Central Himalayas have well developed terraces.

3. Strip cropping: 
Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass at left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind.

4. Shelter belts 
Trees are planted in rows to create shelter. For example the shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes and stabilizing the desert in western India.


Q31: How does technical and economic development have led to more consumption of resources?

Answer: Technical development is necessary for the industrial growth of the country. Industries require lots of raw materials. Human beings interact with nature through technology and utilise various elements of environments for their comfort and development.

For example excessive use of energy resources has led to energy crisis. Hence higher level of economic and technical development has led to exploitation and conservation of resources on a large scale and at a faster rate.

Economic development takes place through more and proper utilisation of available resources for the purpose of advancement of present generation. Technical development makes the resources accessible and usable and aids in further exploitation as well as creation of new
resources. As a whole, more and more of the natural endowments are put to use.

Hence, technical and economic development lead to more and more consumption of resources.


Q32: List the four main factors which help in the formation of soil.

Answer:
The four most important factors of soil formation are:

(i) Relief determines the nature of weathering and erosion.

(ii) Climate determines the rate and factor of denudation of the rocks and influences weathering and erosion.

(iii) Nature of the parent rock determines the colour, texture and mineral content of the soil.

(iv) Time determines maturity of the soil, usually it takes millions of years to form soil upto few cms in depth.