Sunday, 12 August 2018

Colonialism and the City - CBSE Class 8 - History - NCERT Q and A (#cbsenotes)(#eduvictors)

Colonialism and the City 

Colonialism and the City - CBSE Class 8 - History - NCERT Q and A (#cbsenotes)(#eduvictors)

Q & A

Important points:

The partition of India in 1947 led to a massive transfer of populations, and Delhi became a city of refugees.

While Old Delhi was almost ignored by the British, millions were spent on developing New Delhi.

In the late 18th century, Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras became the centres of British colonial power.

In 19th century, in most parts of the Western world, modern cities emerged with industrialisation, but Indian cities under British rule did not benefit much.

After 1911, Delhi became the capital of British India. New Delhi took nearly 20 years to build.


Q1: State whether true or false:
(a) In the Western world, modern cities grew with industrialisation.
(b) Surat and Machlipatnam developed in the nineteenth century.
(c) In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities.
(d) After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.
(e) More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi.



Answer:
(a) True
(b) False
(c) False
(d) True
(e) False


Q2: Fill in the blanks:
(a) The first structure to successfully use the dome was called the _____________.

(b) The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were __________ and __________.

(c) The British saw overcrowded spaces as ____________.

(d) In 1888 an extension scheme called the ____________ was devised.


Answer:
(a) Jama Masjid.
(b) Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker
(c) unhygienic and unhealthy, the source of disease.
(d) Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme


Q3: Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanabad.


Answer:

New Delhi Shahjahanabad
Unwalled city, constructed on Raisina Hill, south of Shahjahanabad or Old Delhi. Constructed as a walled city with 14 gates, adjoining a fort palace complex, with the river Yamuna flowing near it.
Broad, straight streets. Mazes of narrow and winding lanes and by lanes and quiet cul-de-sacs.
Sprawling mansions set in the middle of large compounds. Crowded and congested mohallas and several dozen bazaars.


Q4: Who lived in the “white” areas in cities such as Madras?

Answer: The British lived in well-laid out "white" areas.


Q5: Name the cities that were de-urbanised in the 19th century.

Answer: Surat, Machlipatnam and Seringapatam.


Q6: Why were the main streets of Chandni Chowk and Faiz Bazar made broad?

Answer: They were made broad for royal processions to pass.


Q7: Where did British live in the 1870s?

Answer: They lived in the sprawling Civil Lines area that came up in the north.


Q8: Where, did the Indians live in the 1870s?

Answer: They lived in the Walled City.


Q9: What is meant by de-urbanisation?

Answer: For the sake of convenience of trade, the British developed new centers of trade like Calcutta, Madras and Bombay on eastern and western coastal areas respectively. These were "Presidency" cities that were centres of British power in separate regions.

With time, these cities lost their importance. Simultaneously, many towns manufacturing specialized goods declined due to a drop in the demand for what they produced.

Old trading centres and ports could not survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres. Similarly, earlier centres of regional power collapsed when local rulers were defeated by the British and new centres of administration emerged. This process is known as de-urbanisation.

Cities such as Machlipatnam, Surat and Seringapatam were de-urbanised during the nineteenth century. By the early twentieth century, only 11 per cent of Indians were living in cities.


Q10: Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?

Answer: For the following reasons the British chose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi:

Though Calcutta was the capital of the British, they were aware of the symbolic and cultural importance of Delhi.

It was the city where the Mughals had ruled for several years.

It was the same city that had become the rebel stronghold in the rebellion of 1857, a rebellion that had momentarily threatened the collapse of the British rule in India. It was therefore important to celebrate British power with pomp and show at this very place.

So, a grand Durbar to acknowledge Queen Victoria as the Empress of India was held in Delhi in 1877.

Later, in 1911, a Durbar was held in Delhi to celebrate the crowning of King George V. It was at this Durbar that the decision to shift the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi was announced. These displays showed the people of India the ultimate power and supremacy of the British.


Q11: How did the Old City of Delhi change under British rule?

Answer: The Old City of Delhi was constructed as a walled city with 14 gates, adjoining a fort- palace complex, with the river Jamuna flowing near it. The city was characterised by mosques, havelis, crowded mohallas, narrow and winding lanes and by lanes and water channels.

- The British gained control of Delhi in 1803. Before the revolt of 1857, the British adjusted themselves to the Mughal culture of the Old City by living in the Walled City, enjoying Urdu/Persian culture and poetry, and participating in local festivals. The Delhi College was established in 1792, which led to a great intellectual flowering in sciences as well as humanities.

- However, after the revolt, the British embarked on a mission to rid the city of its Mughal past. They razed several palaces, closed down gardens and built barracks for troops in their place. For security reasons, the area around the Red Fort was completely cleared of gardens, pavilions and mosques.

- Mosques in particular were either destroyed or put to other uses. No worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years.

- One-third of the city was demolished, and its canals were filled up.

- In the 1870s, the Western walls of Shahjahanabad were broken to establish the railway and to allow the city to expand beyond the walls.

- The sprawling Civil Lines area came up in the North of the city. This was the place where the British began living. The Delhi College was turned into a school, and was shut down in 1877.

- The British constructed a new city, known as New Delhi, South of the Old City. Built as a complete contrast to the Old City, New Delhi became the centre of power and the Old city was pushed to neglect.


Q12: What were havelis?

Answer: Havelis were grand mansions in which the Mughal aristocracy in the 17th and 18th century lived.


Q13: How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?

Answer: The partition of India affected the livelihood, art and culture of the city of Delhi.

Days after Indian Independence and Partition, fierce rioting began. Thousands of people in Delhi were killed and their homes looted and burned.

Over two-thirds of Delhi Muslims migrated to Pakistan and almost 44,000 homes were abandoned. Their places were taken over by Sikh and Hindu refugees from Pakistan. These refugees were mostly rural landlords, lawyers, teachers, traders and shopkeepers.

The partition of India in 1947 led to a massive transfer of people on both sides of the new border. As a result, the population of Delhi swelled (nearly 500,000 people were added to Delhi's population).

Delhi became a city of refugees, with people living in camps, schools, military barracks and gardens.

After Partition, their lives changed as they took up new jobs as hawkers, vendors, carpenters and iron smiths.

New colonies such as Lajpat Nagar and Tilak Nagar came up at the time. Shops and stalls were set up to cater to the demands of the migrants. Schools and colleges also came up.

The large migration from Punjab changed the social and cultural milieu of Delhi. An urban culture largely based on Urdu was overshadowed by new tastes and sensibilities, in food, dress and the arts.


Q14: Give Example to show that the British neglected the walled city.

Answer: Following examples show that the British neglected the walled city:

- In the process of the designing a new capital, the British neglected the walled city.

- There was no proper system of water supply. Nor were there proper drainage facilities.

- There was no concept of underground drains. At some places, open surface drains were dug.

- The grand havelis of the walled city also gradually collapsed. There were very few traditionally rich families left.

- The British did not do anything to maintain the havelis were sold off.