Wednesday, 16 January 2019

CBSE Class 8 - History: Chapter – 07 - Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners (Questions and Answers)(#cbsenotes)(#eduvictors)

History: Chapter 7 - Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners 

(Q & A)

CBSE Class 8 - History: Chapter – 07 - Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners (Questions and Answers)(#cbsenotes)(#eduvictors)

Q1: During British rule, crafts and industries focussed on which sectors?

Answer:
Textiles
Iron and steel


Q2: What was the connection between India and the industrialization of Britain?

Answer: The industrialization of Britain had a close connection with the conquest and colonization of India.


Q3: With start of industrial age in Britain, why were British Industrialists interested in India?

Answer: With the growth of industrial production, British industrialists began to see India as a vast
market for their industrial products, and over the years, manufactured goods from Britain began flooding India. 




Q4: How was Indian Textile industry before British industrial invasion?

Answer:
(i) Around 1750, India was the world’s largest producer of cotton textiles.
(ii) Indian textile was renowned both for its fine quality and exquisite craftsmanship.
(iii) From the 16th century European traders began buying Indian textiles for sale in Europe.


Q5: Who were the Weavers?

Answer: Weavers belonged to communities that specialized in weaving. Handloom weaving and the occupations associated with it provided livelihood for millions of Indians.


Q6: Give two instances that shows Indian textiles were world famous in 17th- 18th century.

Answer:
(i) Indian textiles were famous in western markets under different western markets under different names such as ‘Muslin’ and ‘Calico’ (derived from Calicut).

(ii) Printed cotton cloths called chintz (derived from chhint) and bandanna (derived from ‘bandhna’ or tie and dye) were the pieces ordered in bulk. 


Q7: When did British government ban chintz?

Answer: In 1720, the British government enacted a legislation banning the use of printed cotton textiles-chintz in England.


Q8: Who invented Spinning Jenny?

Answer: Spinning Jenny was invented by John Kaye in 1764.


Q9: Who invented steam engine?

Answer: The steam engine was invented by Richard Arkwright in 1786 which revolutionised cotton textile weaving.


Q10: What were the reasons for decline of Indian textiles industry?

Answer:
(i) The development of cotton industries in Britain affected textile producers in India in many ways.

(ii) By the beginning of the 19th century, English-made cotton textiles successfully ousted Indian goods from their traditional markets in Africa, America and Europe.

(iii) English and European companies stopped buying Indian goods.

(iv) By the 1830s British cotton cloth flooded Indian markets. Thousands of rural women who made a living by spinning cotton thread were rendered jobless.


Q11: What was Gandhiji's contribution to revive Indian textiles?

Answer: During the National movement, Mahatma Gandhi urged people to boycott imported textiles and use handspun and hand woven cloth, Khadi became a symbol of nationalism.


Q12: Where was the first cotton mill set up in India?

Answer: In 1854, the first cotton mill in India was set up as a spinning mill in Bombay. By 1900, over 84 mills started operating in Bombay.


Q13: When was the first major spurt in Indian Cotton mill production occurred? Why?

Answer: The first major spurt in the development of cotton factory production in India, was during the first World War when textile imports from Britain declined and Indian factories were called upon to produce cloth for military supplies. 


Q14: What happened to Wootz Steel industry?

Answer: The Wootz steel making process which was widely known in South-India, was completely lost by the mid-nineteenth century. The excellent quality of Wootz steel fascinated European scientists. The swords and armour making industry died with the conquest of India by the British and by the late 19th century the craft of iron smelting was in decline. Many people gave up their craft and looked for other means of livelihood.


Q15: Who setup the first modern iron and steel plant in India?

Answer: In 1904, Charles Weld, an American geologist and Dorabji Tata, the eldest son of Jamsetji Tata set up a modern iron and steel plant in India. The Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) came up in 1912 and began producing steel.

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