Tuesday 3 July 2018

CBSE Class 8 - HISTORY – CRAFT AND INDUSTRIES - Concept Points (#cbsenotes)(#eduvictors)

History - Chapter : Crafts and Industries

CBSE Class 8 - HISTORY – CRAFT AND INDUSTRIES - Concept Points (#cbsenotes)(#eduvictors)

Concept Points

1. The products which are of aesthetic value and are produced by hand or by using simple tools and machines are termed as Handicraft.

2. Items of Exports – pearls, perfumes, spices, sugar etc.

3. Items of Imports – gold, copper, zinc etc.

4. A process which include the production of fabric by interlacing two sets of threads is termed as weaving.

5. The shift from manual system to machine made goods or machine system is known as Industrial Revolution.

6. The process of decay in rural and urban industries that upset the balance of economy is called de-industrialisation.

7. India had a glorious past of art and handicraft industries.

8. Indian textile was one of the chief items of export.

9. Reasons for the decline of handicraft industries.
❇ Cotton textile industries in India were most hit by British machine – made goods.
❇ No encouragement from the government to the Indian handicraft industry.
❇ Raw material were exported to England to feed the industries.

10. Impact on Indian Economy
❇ India became the exporter of raw material.
❇ Indian markets were flooded with British Goods.
❇ Indian artisans became unemployed.
❇ The company forced the farmers to grow cash crop instead of food crop.

11. India attempted to recover itself from these economic slumps and slowly organized its industries on modern lines.

12. In 1882, there were 20 jute mills and 1901 the number went up to 36.

13. Setting up of New Industries

❇ Cotton Textile Industry – First Cotton textile mill was started in Bombay in 1853. The Swadeshi Movement, which began in Bengal in 1905, gave a fillip to the cotton textile industry.

❇ Coal Mining and Iron Industry – The coal mining industry employed nearly 100,000 people in 1906. The establishment of the Tata Iron and steel company at Jameshedpur by Jamshadji Tata heralded India’s position as a modern iron and steel producing industries.

❇ Other Industries – Plantation industries like tea, coffee and indigo.

❇ British invested in the development of roads and railways.
❇ Indians were the first to set up cotton and textile industries.
❇ Various technologies have been developed to weave clothes.
☛ Handloom – Weaving by hand on a wooden frame.
☛ Power Looms – The electricity driver looms
☛ Vertical loom – The frame stands vertically on a wall or roof beam.
☛ Horizontal loom – The frame lies horizontally across vertical supports.
☛ Power loom – a mechanised form of the flying shuttle that resembles hand loom.
☛ Pit loom – The weaver sits with his legs in the pit and pedal to open the weap threads.

14. Mahatma Gandhi called for a nation-wide campaign to make bonfire of foreign clothes only handspun Khadi.

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