Thursday, 17 January 2019

CBSE Class 9 - Economics - Chapter 3 - Poverty as a Challenge (Questions and Answers)(#eduvictors)(#cbsenotes)

Class 9 - Economics - Poverty as a Challenge 

(Questions and Answers)
CBSE Class 9 - Economics - Chapter 3 - Poverty as a Challenge (Questions and Answers)(#eduvictors)(#cbsenotes)

Q1: Who advocated that India would be truly independent only when the poorest of its people becomes free of human suffering?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi

Q2: What is social exclusion ? Give one example of it.

1. According to the concept of social exclusion, poverty must be seen in terms of the poor having to live only in poor surroundings with other poor people, excluded from enjoying social equality with better-off people in better surroundings.

2. It is a process through which individuals or groups are excluded from facilities, benefits and opportunities that others enjoy.

3. Its typical example is the working of caste system in India. In this system, people from certain castes are excluded from equal opportunities.

Q3: Name the social indicators used to observe poverty?

Answer: Social indicators like illiteracy level, lack of general resistance due to malnutrition, lack to access to healthcare, lack of job opportunities, lack of access to safe drinking water, sanitation etc.
are used by social scientists to observe poverty.

Q4: How is illiteracy responsible for poverty in India ? Explain.

Answer: Illiteracy is responsible for poverty in the following manners:

Today excessive agricultural production needs the input of latest and powerful technology. But in India maximum of the farmers are illiterate. They fail to adopt new technologies and clinical agriculture. This ends in excessive cost and coffee manufacturing and consequently to poverty.

In the agricultural area, primary supply of credit is the cash-creditors. Since the farmers and other people are normally illiterate, the cash-creditors or money lenders take benefit. They are trapped in the debt-cycle. Hence, the poverty sustains.

Also in the urban area, illiterate people usually do unskilled jobs. They are being paid less salaries.

Illiterate people mostly work in the factories as manual labourers or at the shops. The factory owners and shopkeepers exploit them. They work for many hours but are paid less.

Q5: How far is it correct to say that social exclusion can be both a cause as well as a consequence of poverty? Explain

Poverty must be visible in terms of the negative having to stay best in a terrible surrounding with different negative human beings, excluded from taking part in social equality of better-off people in better surroundings. Social exclusion may be each a purpose as well as a consequence
of poverty in the usual feel.

Broadly, it's a method via which individuals or businesses are excluded from centers, benefits and opportunities that others (their “betters”) enjoy.

A typical example is the working of the caste system in India in which people belonging to certain castes are excluded from equal opportunities. Social exclusion thus may lead to, but can cause more damage than, having a very low income.

Q6(V. Important ): Mention any six social indicators of poverty .

Illiteracy level : It is a situation where parents are unable to send their children to school.
Lack of sanitation : It means cleaning of our surrounding.
Lack of access to healthcare : It is a situation in which sick people cannot afford treatment.
Lack of general resistance : It means lack of general resistance due to malnutrition.
Lack of job opportunity : It means no availability of regular job opportunity.
Lack of access to drinking water : It means lack of safe and clean drinking water facilities.

Q7: Who conducts the periodical sample surveys for estimating the poverty line in India?

Answer: National Sample Survey Organisation.

Q8: Which Indian states are the most poverty ridden?

Answer: Orissa, Bihar, Assam, Tripura and Uttar Pradesh are the most poverty ridden states of India.

Q9: Define poverty line.

Answer: Poverty line is a demarcation line by which we can understand that who are able to fulfil their essential basic needs of life.

Q10: How is poverty line calculated in India?

Answer: Poverty line in India is calculated in the following ways :

(i) A person is considered poor if his/her income or consumption level falls below a ‘minimum level’ necessary to fulfill basic needs.

(ii) While determining poverty line in India, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical requirements etc are determined for subsistence.

(iii) Estimating the poverty line is also based on the desired calories requirement. It is 2400 calories per person per day in the rural areas and 2100 calories in the urban areas.

Q11: Describe in three points about the poverty trends in India since 1973.

Answer: Following are the features of poverty trends in India since 1973:
(1) There is substantial decline in poverty ratios in India from about 55 per cent in 1973 to 36 per cent in 1993.

(2) The proportion of people below poverty line further came down to about 26 per cent in 2000.

(3) If this trend continues people below poverty line may come down to 20 per cent in the next few years.

(4) The latest estimates indicate a significant reduction in the number of poor to about 260 million i.e., 26 crores.

Q12: Who are the most vulnerable groups as far as poverty is concerned? 

Answer: Following are the most vulnerable groups as far as poverty is concerned :
(i) Poor people of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

(ii) Agricultural labour households and casual labour households.

(iii) Backward class people, aged, women, children, physically and mentally challenged people.

Q13: What is meant by ‘vulnerability’ regarding poverty ?

Answer: It describes the greater probability of certain communities (members of a backward caste) or individuals becoming poor in the coming years.

Q14: Give a brief description of the global poverty trends.

(1) Proportion of people living in developing countries in extreme economic poverty has fallen from 28% in 1990 to 21% in 2001.

(2) But it is marked with regional differences in decline in poverty. For example China.

(3) Poverty has decreased in percentage but the number of poor continues to be almost the same.

(4) In Sub-Saharan Africa poverty rose from 41% in 1981 to 46% in 2001.

Q15: How can poverty be reduced in future in India? Suggest any four points.

Answer:  By sticking to the following provisions, poverty can be reduced in future in India:
(1) Attaining sustainable higher economic growth rate.

(2) By increasing stress on universal free and essential primary education.

(3) By providing sufficient medical facilities even in the rural areas so that the population growth rate could be minimized.

(4) By focusing on empowerment of the women and economically weaker section of the society.

Q16: Explain any three bigger challenges that still remain to be tackled in the way to eradicate poverty.

Answer: Following bigger challenges still remain to be tackled :
(1) Providing healthcares to all.

(2) Providing education and job security to all.

(3) Achieving gender equality and dignity for poor.

Q17: What is the global poverty scenario?

(i) The population of people in developing countries living in extreme economic poverty-defined by the World Bank as living on less then that $1 per day-has fallen form 28 per cent in 1960 to 21 per cent in 2001. Although there has been a substantial reduction in global poverty, it is marked with great regional differences.

(ii) Poverty declined substantially in China and South-east Asian countries as a result of rapid economic growth and massive investments in human resource development.

(iii) In the countries of South Asia (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan) the decline has not been as rapid.

(iv) In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty in fact rose from 41 per cent in 1981 to 46 per cent in 2001.

(v) In Latin America, the ratio of poverty remained the same.

(vi) The Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations calls for reducing the proportion of people living on less then $1 a day to half the 1990 level by 2015.

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