Thursday 16 May 2019

Class 10 Economics: Chapter 1: Development (Questions and Answers)(#cbsenotes)(#class10Economics)(#eduvictors)

Class 10 Economics: Chapter 1: Development  

Questions and Answers
Class 10 Economics: Chapter 1: Development  (Questions and Answers)(#cbsenotes)(#class10Economics)(#eduvictors)

Q1: What is Per Capita Income?     

Answer: It is obtained by dividing national income by the population of a country i.e. Per Capita Income = National Income / Mid Year Population

Q2: Is progress synonym to development?

Answer: Yes, development is also known as progress.

Q3: What is meant by ‘economic development’? Write the two bases of measuring economic development of a country?

Answer: Economic development is a sustained increase in real per Capita income that promotes economic welfare by reducing poverty, unemployment & inequalities in the distribution of Income. Two bases of measuring economic development are National Income & per Capita Income.

Q4: Define Development.

Answer: Development means more income and for the higher income, they need regular work, better wages and reasonable and fair prices for their products.

Q5: “What may be development for one may not be developed for the other.” Explain with a suitable example.

Answer: The establishment of a dam leads to infrastructural development but many people have shifted out of the village, hence it may not be developed for them.

Q6: What is meant by National Development?

Answer: National Development means an increase in per capita income and also self-sufficiency of an economy.

Q7: Why is the total income of countries not used to make comparisons between them?

Answer: The total income of the countries is not used to make comparisons between them because the population of different countries is different.

Q8: Why do people look at a mix of goals for development?

Answer: For development, people do look at a mix of goals-which not only focus on seeking/earning more income but also on non-material aspects like equal treatment, respect of other, dignity of labour, a safe and secure work environment, pollution free surroundings, equity sharing etc.

Q9: Why do you think average income is an important criterion for development? Explain.

Answer: It is an important criterion because it gives some idea about the rising standard of living. The prosperity of a country depends not only on the size of the national income but also on the number of people who would share it.

Q10: Mention any one development as a goal of landless rural labourers.

Answer: Development goals of landless rural labourers can be :
(i) Regular income.
(ii) Regular job.
(iii) Small piece of land.
(iv) Equal status in society.

Q11: Besides the size of per capita income, which another property of income is important in comparing two or more societies?       

Answer: Per capita income is important but not the only criterion for development. Along with average income, equitable distribution of income in a country should also be considered.

Q12: Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? 

Answer: Sustainability is important for development because it results in ( i ) protecting the people against pollution ensuring their quality of life & health. ( ii ) conserving the environment which is necessary for development.

Q13: What do you mean by literacy rate?

Answer: It is the ratio/proportion of the literate population in the 7 years and above age group.

Q14: What is the human development index HDI?

Answer: HDI is a composite index of achievements of a nation in terms of three important variables that determine the quality of life. These three variables are longevity, knowledge & standard of living. It is prepared by the United Nations Development program.

Q15: Among Punjab, Kerela & Bihar, which one has the lowest infant mortality rate?

Answer: Kerela has the lowest infant mortality rate. 

Q16: Why do some people oppose dams? Give one reason.

Answer: Because it disrupts the livelihood of displaced people.

Q17: How can development be sustained in an economy? Give an example with reference to the use of resources.

Answer: Development can be sustained in any economy by using renewable resources such as groundwater, wind energy & solar energy.

Q18: Why is per capita income of different countries calculated in dollars & not in their own currencies by the World Bank?

Answer: It is done in order to make comparisons of per capita income of different countries possible.

Q19: Kerela, with low per capita has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence per capita income is not a useful criterion at all & should not be used to compare states. Do you agree?

Answer: It is true that per capita income is not the only criterion behind human development. Factors like infant mortality rate, literacy rate & not attendance ratio are also very crucial for overall human development. In these factors, Kerela is better than Punjab. However, if we are interested only in comparing two or more states in terms of production and income generated then per capita income is an important criterion.

Q20: Which three efforts should be made by any country to improve its HDI?

Answer: The three efforts which could be made by any country to improve its HDl are:
(i) providing 100% literacy to the people.
(ii) improving health facilities.
(iii) creating a pollution free environment.

Q21: In what respects is the criterion used by UNDP for measuring development different from the one used by the World Bank?       

Answer: World Bank uses the criterion of per capita income (measured in dollar terms) to classify different countries as high income or low-income countries.

The criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development is different from the criterion used by the World Bank in the following ways,

- The UNDP compares the development of the countries on the basis of literacy rate, gross enrolment ratio and health status of their people, On the hand, the World Bank completes the development of the countries on the basis of per capita income or average income,

- On the basis of the comparison done by the UNDP, the countries are ranked as first, second, third .. whereas on the basis of the comparison done by the World Bank the countries are divided into three categories:

1. Rich or developed or high-income countries

2. Middle income or developing countries

3. Poor or underdeveloped or low-income countries

The UNDP has a broader concept of development and the World Bank has a narrow concept of development, UNDP uses a different criterion called the human development index (HDI). HDI is a composite index on a scale 0-1 measured on the basis of three indicators,

a) Longevity: It is measured in terms of life expectancy

b) Knowledge:- It is measured by a combination of adult literacy & combined enrollment ratio

c) Standard of living:- It is measured by real per capita income in dollars The country with 0 HDI will be at the bottom & the one with 1 HDI will be at the top. All other countries are in between.

Limitation of this criterion is that average or per capita income is not the only factor important for development, This factor hides the other important factorfllistribution of income, which also affects development, Higher average income, along with equitable distribution of income is considered favourable for development.

Q22: ‘While average income is useful for comparison but it may hide disparities’. Discuss.

Answer: Per capita income is an important criterion for development is considered to be one of the most important attributes for comparing countries but it suffers from the following limitations:

(i) Per capita income doesn’t tell us anything about the distribution of income. A poor country with a more equal distribution of income would be better off than a richer country with unequal distribution of income.

(ii) Per capita income doesn’t measure various facilities & services that influence the quality of life e.g. health facilities, education facilities, equal treatment etc.

(iii) It is affected by the size of the population. Even with a large national income, per capita income will be low if a country has a large population.

Q23: Distinguish between economic development & human development. 

Human Development
1. It refers to the human-centred approach towards development. It focuses on people & qualitative improvement in human life.
2. It is indicated by the human development index.
3. It is an under term & includes economic development also.
4. It considers human welfare. Should be increased through investments in education & health.

Economic Development
1. It refers to a sustained increase in real per capita income that promotes economic welfare by reducing poverty, unemployment & inequalities in the distribution of income.
2. It can be indicated by national income & per capita income.
3. It is a narrower term as compared to economic development.
4. It considers people can be made better off by increasing their command over goods and services.

Q24: How does industrial pollution degrade the environment? Explain three measures to control environmental degradation.     

Answer: Industrial pollution degrades the environment in the following ways :
(i) Air is polluted by the gases.
(ii) Dust, fume, mist, spray and smoke contain particles.
(iii) Industrial effluents pollute rivers.
(iv) Paper pulp, textiles, chemicals etc. industries pollute land & soil due to toxic materials.

Steps to control environmental degradation are :
(i) Careful planning & set of industries.
(ii) Better equipment
(iii) Proper fuel selection & utilization.
(iv) Treatment of industrial liquids.

Q25: Identify the different thrust areas of human development. Which one of them plays the most significant role in the development?   

Answer: Human development is a human-centered approach to development. It focuses on people. It is concerned with them and their well being, their needs, choices & aspirations. Human development is a wider term which not only includes economic development but also includes the development of one’s knowledge & educational capabilities as well as one’s health conditions so that one may lead a healthy and long life. Human development aims at the building of different human capabilities so that one may make use of the natural resource, have sustainable development have better personal & social security & to ensure a decent standard of living.

Q26: “Do the two terms –economic growth and economic development mean the same thing”. Discuss.       

Answer: No, they are different. Economic growth can be defined as a process whereby a country’s real national income increases over a period of time. On the other hand economic development is a process of a long-term increase in income as well as with achieving a more equitable income distribution and poverty alleviation. Thus economic development is a wider concept than economic growth.

Q27: Describe briefly four steps taken by the Indian government for raising the status of women at par with that of men.

(i) Women are given the equal right to vote like those of men

(ii) the government of India has declared dowry as illegal and now no one can force the other party to give dowry.

(iii) To impart education to girls various schools and colleges have been opened.

(iv) Gender empowerment focusses on opportunities and participation in the decision-making process and values.

(v) Women have been recognised as a separate target group in our development planning, for raising their status at par with that of men. To achieve the above objective the National Commission for women was set up in January 1992.

Q28: Explain two main reasons for the need for environment-friendly economic growth and also explain two suggestions to achieve them.     

Answer: Reasons for the need for environment-friendly economic growth are:
(i) Present production technology has polluted atmosphere and water bodies with garbage, smoke and poisonous gases.

(ii) Rapid economic growth and industrialisation have led to natural resources (like fossil fuels).

Suggestions to achieve it:
(i) Increased use of renewable and clean sources of energy, less use of fossil fuels, organic farming.

(ii) Measures to reduce global warming and global limits on carbon emissions etc. 

☛See also:
Economics - Ch1 Development (MCQs) 
Economics - Ch1 Development (MCQs from 2012 Exam)
Economics - Ch1 Development (Revision Assignment)

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