# Chapter 1: Planning in Sports - Important Terms To Remember

Class 12 - Physical Education

__Important Terms__

PLANNING

Planning is a preparation for any action. It is the first requirement of good administration and efficient working of the program.

TOURNAMENT:

A tournament is a competition held among various teams in a particular activity according to a fixed schedule where a winner is decided.

KNOCK-OUT TOURNAMENT:

In this type of tournament, the team once defeated gets eliminated from the tournament. Only the winning teams contest in the next rounds. Opportunities are given to the winning players/teams.

LEAGUE TOURNAMENT:

In single league tournament, all participating teams compete once, with each other, whereas in the double league, each team plays with every as in double league, each team plays with every other team twice, without any consideration of victory or defeat.

COMBINATION TOURNAMENT:

Combination tournaments are organized in a group or zonal matches. Whenever there are a large number of teams, combination tournaments facilitate the Physical Education Teachers, job. It gives them elbow room to try out new experiments.

CHALLENGE TOURNAMENT:

This type of tournament comes handy when there are one to one contests or there are two players on each side. One player challenges the other and the other player accepts the challenge. Games in which such tournaments are held are – Boxing, Tennis, Table Tennis, Badminton etc.

CONSOLATION TOURNAMENT:

Those tournaments in which an additional chance is given to the defeated team.

BYE:

Bye is a privilege given to a team generally by drawing lots, exempting it from playing in the first round.

SEEDING:

The sorting of the teams and fitting them in the fixtures so that the stronger teams do not meet each other in earlier rounds are known as Seeding.

SPECIAL SEEDING:

Any player or team which gets a direct entry into quarter-finals or semi-finals is known as special seeding.

LEAGUE TOURNAMENT:

It is also known as a round-robin tournament. In this type of tournament, all teams play against each other team irrespective of winning or losing.

CYCLIC METHOD:

In the cyclic method, one team is fixed and other teams are moved clockwise. The formula for calculating no. of matches=n(n-1/2).

STAIRCASE METHOD:

In the stair-case method, the fixtures are made just like a ladder or a staircase. In this method, no bye is given to any team and there is no problem of even or odd number of teams.

INTRAMURAL:

Intramural is derived from the Latin word’ Intra” and “mural’.”Intra” means “within” and “Mural” means ‘Wall'. So we can say that the activities, which are performed within the walls or within the campus of an institution are called ‘Intramural”.

EXTRAMURAL:

Extramural is derived from the Latin words “Extra” and “Waif”. So, we can say that the activities which are performed outside the walls of an institution or school are known as “extramural”.

SPECIFIC SPORTS PROGRAMME:

Specific sports programmes are such programmes of sports which are not usually related to competitions. These programmes have various objectives such as creating awareness among peoples regarding unity, health & diseases etc.

The formula for Knock-out Tournament:

Total no. of matches = n-1, where n is the number of teams.

The formula for League Tournament:

Total no. of matches = n(n-1)/2

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