Monday 18 September 2023

Class 12 - Political Science - Contemporary South Asia - Questions and Answers #eduvictors

 Class 12 - Political Science - Contemporary South Asia - Questions and Answers

Class 12 - Political Science - Contemporary South Asia - Questions and Answers #eduvictors

Q1: Name the states that are part of the South Asian region.

Answer: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives and Afghanistan. South Asia stands for diversity in every sense and yet constitutes one geopolitical space.

Q2: What is the full form of SAARC?

Answer: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. 

Q3: Is China member of SAARC?

Answer: No. China is a formidable power but is not a part of this region.

Q4: What are the various political systems that exist in South Asia?

Answer: In terms of civil liberties available to the people of South Asian countries, the track record of most of these countries is highly disappointing –

1. Only Sri Lanka and India have been able to operate democracy successfully since their independence while Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Maldives etc. have seen ups and downs in democratic stability. 

2. Pakistan began the post-Cold War period with successive democratic governments under Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif respectively. But suffered a military coup in 1999 and has been run by a military regime.

3. Till 2006, Nepal was a constitutional monarchy since July 2008 it has PM with a council of ministers with the government and it has become a multi-party system. 

4. The Maldives and the other island nation was a Sultanate till 1968 when it was transformed into a republic with a Presidential form of government. In June 2005, the Parliament of the Maldives voted unanimously to introduce a multi-party system. The Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP) dominates the political affairs of the island.

Q5: Why do people in South Asia prefer democracy?


- The demand for democracy has gained momentum in the region in recent years.

- People in all these countries share the aspirations for democracy and there is widespread support for democracy in all these countries.

- All the people belonging to different statuses and religions, view the idea of democracy positively and support the institutions of representative democracy.

- They prefer democracy over any other form of government and think that democracy is suitable for the country. 

Q6: Who seized power as the first military coup in Pakistan?

Answer: General Ayub Khan

Q7: Explain the flip-flop democracy and military rule in Pakistan.

Answer: Pakistan emerged as an Islamic nation in 1947, following the partition of India. The founder of Pakistan, Mr. Jinnah wanted the country to be governed along Western political concepts but he did not survive for long.

● After the framing of its first constitution, General Ayub Khan got himself elected in 1958 and ruled the country for nearly 11 years.

● Due to mass dissatisfaction he had to leave office which led to the military takeover of Pakistan under General Yahya Khan.

● During his period in 1971 war broke out with India over the issue of East Pakistan leading to the creation of Bangladesh.

● From 1971–77 elected government under Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came to power.

● The Bhutto government was removed by General Zia-Ul-Haq in 1977.

● General Zia promised to hold elections and transfer the power to a civilian government.

● General Zia faced a pro-democracy movement in 1982 but he died in a plane crash and an elected government was established in 1988 under the leadership of Benazir Bhutto who was the leader of the People’s Party of Pakistan (PPP).

● After that there was competitive democracy in Pakistan between Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) and the Muslim League till 1999.

● In 1999 there was a military coup led by General Pervez Musharraf with the overthrow of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif.

● In 2001 Musharraf got himself elected as President.

● In December 2007 Benazir Bhutto was assassinated by a suicide bomber of Al-Qaida.

● Her brutal murder in December 2007 has once again delayed the election scheduled for January 2008 leading to the preponderance of the military regime under Musharraf once again.

● Bhutto’s husband Asif Ali Zardari has been elected as the President and Musharraf has been forced to resign.

● Since 2008, democratically elected leaders have been ruling Pakistan.

Q8: What are the three major reasons for the failure of democracy in Pakistan?


1. The social dominance of the military, clergy and landowning aristocracy.

2. Pakistan's conflict with India has made the pro–military groups more powerful.

3. The lack of genuine international support for democratic rule in Pakistan. Western countries believe that military rule in Pakistan is more suitable to check global Islamic terrorism and to avoid the misuse of nuclear arsenal.

Q9: When did Bangladesh become an independent state?

Answer: In 1972, Bangladesh became an independent state after a strong popular movement against the discriminatory attitude of the Pakistani government towards East Pakistan.

Q10: Who amended the constitution from Parliamentary to Presidential government in Bangladesh?

Answer: In 1975, Sheikh Mujib-Ur-Rahman amended the constitution from Parliamentary to Presidential government. He abolished all parties except his own Awami League. Mujib-Ur-Rahman was assassinated in 1975.

Q11: Explain the political relations between India and Bhutan.


● India enjoys a very special relationship with Bhutan.

● The efforts made by the Bhutanese monarch to weed out the guerrillas and militants from north-eastern India that operate in his country have been helpful to India.

● India is involved in many hydroelectric projects in Bhutan and is the principal provider of developmental aid to Bhutan.

● There is the free movement of goods and persons between the two countries.

Q12: What are the objectives of SAARC?

Answer: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) formed in 1985 is a major regional initiative by the South Asian states to evolve cooperation through multilateral means.

Objectives of SAARC

1. Promote the welfare of the people of South Asia and improve their quality of life.

2. Accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region by providing all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and realise their full potential. 

3. Promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia.

4. Contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one another’s problems.

5. Promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields.

6. Strengthen cooperation with other developing countries.

7. Strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums on matters of common interest.

8. Cooperate with international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes. 

Q13: How did LTTE emerge?

Answer: Sri Lanka gained independence in 1948. It has retained democracy since independence but it has faced serious strife based on ethnicity even leading to the secessionist movement.

● After independence Sri Lanka’s political regime was dominated by the majority Sinhalese community.

● The Sinhalas were hostile to Tamils who had migrated to Sri Lanka and were denied political, civil, social and economic rights.

● This neglect of Tamil took the form of a militant organisation called Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) in 1983.

Q14: What is the Indus River Water Treaty? Mention its significance?

Answer: The Indus Waters Treaty is a water-sharing treaty between India and Pakistan, brokered by the World Bank and signed on September 19, 1960. It allocates the water of the Indus River system and its tributaries between the two countries.

The Indus River system is one of the largest in the world, and its waters are essential for the livelihoods of millions of people in both India and Pakistan. The treaty was signed after nearly a decade of negotiations, and it is considered to be one of the most successful international water treaties ever negotiated.

The treaty divides the Indus River system into two parts: the eastern rivers and the western rivers. The eastern rivers (the Beas, Ravi, and Sutlej) are allocated to India, while the west rivers (the Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab) are allocated to Pakistan.

👉See Also:

The End of Bipolarity - Part 1 - Important Keywords
Pol Science Term 1 - MCQs
Chapter: The End of Bipolarity (Q & A) - Part 2
Chapter 1: Building A Nation (Very Short Answer Based Question)
Building A Nation (Questions & Answers) - Part 2

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