Monday 18 December 2023

Class 12 Political Science - GLOBALISATION - Questions and Answers #eduvictors #class12Polity

Class 12 Political Science - GLOBALISATION -
Questions and Answers

Class 12 Political Science - GLOBALISATION - Questions and Answers #eduvictors #class12Polity

Cultural Hetrogenisation – 
It signifies cultural differences and the distinctive nature of cultures to be generated by globalisation.

Cultural Homogenisation – 
It signifies uniform cultures all around the world.

Globalisation – 
It signifies the integration of an economy with the economies of other countries under the process of free flow of trade and capital.

Liberalisation – 
It signifies the relaxation of government rules and regulations relating to activities in the service and industrial sectors.

Privatisation – 
It allows private sector companies to produce goods and services in a country.

Welfare State – A state where the government regulates the means of production in the interest of the people.

World Social Forum – A global platform to bring together a wide coalition of human rights activists, environmentalists and women activists.

What is Globalisation?

Globalisation is a concept that deals with the flow of various kinds of ideas, capital, commodities and people moving from one country to another. Its main element is ‘worldwide interconnectedness’ that is created and sustained as a consequence of these constant flows. Globalisation is a multidimensional concept as it has political, economic and cultural manifestations. Globalisation provides opportunities in a way that creates new jobs in industries and multinational companies. There is an increase in the volume of trade in goods and services. On the other hand, it reduces the capacity of the government to make decisions on its own. It deals with the flowers of various ideas moving from one part of the world to another former capital shunted between two or more places former commodities being traded across borders and people moving in search of better livelihoods.

1. Improved transport making global travel easier.

2. Improve technology which makes it easier to communicate and share information around 
the world example internet.

3. Growth of multi-national companies with global presence.

4. Growth of global trading jobs which have reduced national barriers eg. European Union.

5. Reduced tariff barriers encouraging global trade.

6. Firms exploiting gains from economies of scale to gain increased specialisation.

7. Growth of global media.

8. Global trade cycle. Economic growth is global in nature. This means countries are increasingly interconnected.

1. Globalisation results in an erosion of state capacity that is the ability of government to do what they do.

2. All over the world the old welfare state is now giving way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order and the security of its citizens.

3. In place of the welfare state it is the market and becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.

4. The increased role of MNCs all over the world leads to a reduction in the capacity of governments to make decisions on their own.

5. But at the same globalization does not reduce state capacity. The primacy of the
state continues to be an unchallenged basis of political autonomy.

6. The state continues to discharge its essential functions of law and order and consciously withdraws from certain domains from which it wishes to.

7.  Indeed in some respects state capacity has received a boost, in the sense that with enhanced Technologies available at the disposal of the state it can collect information about its citizens.


1. The mention of economic globalization draws our attention immediately to the role of international institutions like the IMF and the WTO and the role they play in determining economic policies across the world.

2. Economic globalisation involves many actors other than these international institutions.

3. Economic globalisation requires us to look at the distribution of economic gains, i.e. who gets the most from globalisation and who gets less, indeed who loses from it.

4. Economic globalisation usually involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world some of which are forced by international institutions and powerful countries.

5. In operational terms, it means that investors in the rich countries can invest their money in rich countries other than their own including developing countries where they might get better returns.

6. While globalisation has led to similar economic policies adopted by governments in different parts of the world, this has generated vastly different outcomes in different parts of the world.

7.  Economic globalisation has created an intense division of opinion all over the world.


1. They believe that it is likely to benefit only a small section of the population while impoverishing those who are dependent on the government for jobs and welfare.

2. They have emphasised the need to ensure institutional safeguards or create ‘social safety nets’ to minimise the negative effects of globalisation on those who are economically weak.

3. Many movements all over the world feel that safety nets are insufficient or unworkable and called for a halt to forced economic globalisation.

4. Some economists have described economic globalisation as the re-colonisation of the world.

1. They argue that it generates greater economic growth and well-being for larger sections of the population when there is de-regulation.

2. Greater trade among countries allows each economy to do what it does best.

3. They also argue that economic globalisation is inevitable and it is not wise to resist the march of history and it provides a challenge that can be responded to intelligently without accepting it uncritically.

1. Globalisation affects us in our home, in what we eat, drink, wear and what we think.

2. The cultural effect of globalization leads to the fear that this process poses a threat to cultures in the world.

3. It does so because globalization leads to the rise of uniform culture or what is called cultural homogenization.

4.  The rise of uniform culture is not the emergence of global culture but rather the imposition of Western culture on the rest of the world which is dangerous not only for the poor countries but for the whole of humanity for it leads to the shrinking of the rich cultural heritage of the entire globe.

It would be a mistake to assume that the cultural consequences of globalisation are
only negative.

1. All cultures accept outside influences all the time.

2. Some external influences are negative because they reduce our choices but sometimes external influences simply enlarge choices and modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional.

For example – Burger is no substitute for masala dosa and therefore does not pose any real danger.

2. While cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisation the same process also generates precisely the opposite effect.

3. It leads to each culture being more different and distinctive which is called cultural heterogenization.


1. Flows about the movement of capital, commodities, ideas and people go back several centuries in Indian history.

2. During the colonial period, as a consequence of Britain’s imperial ambitions, India became an exporter of primary goods and raw materials and a consumer of finished goods.

3. After Independence we decided not to allow others to export to us so that our own producers could learn to make things. This protectionism generated its own problems.

4. Some advances were made in certain areas, but critical sectors such as health, housing and primary education were neglected.

5. In 1991, responding to a financial crisis and to the desire for higher rates of economic growth, India embarked on a programme of economic reforms that sought to deregulate trade and foreign investment.

Critics of globalisation make a variety of arguments.

1. Those on the left argue that contemporary globalisation represents a particular phase of global capitalism that makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.

2. Weakening of the state leads to a reduction in the capacity of the state to protect the interest of its poor.

3. Critics of globalisation from the political right express anxiety over the political, economic and cultural effects and fear the weakening of the state.

4. Economically they want a return to self-reliance and protectionism.

5. Culturally they are worried that traditional culture will be harmed and people will lose their age-old values and ways.

6. It is important to note here that anti-globalisation movements participate in global networks, allying with those who feel like them in other countries.

7. In 1999, at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Ministerial meeting there were widespread protests in Seattle alleging unfair trading practices by the economically powerful states.

8. It was argued that the interests of the developing world were not given sufficient importance in the evolving global economic system.

9.  The World Social Forum (WSF) is an annual meeting of civil society organisations, first held in Brazil, which offers a self-conscious effort to develop an alternative future through the championing of counter-hegemonic globalisation.

10 The World Social Forum (WSF) is another global platform which brings together a wide coalition composed of human rights, activists, environmentalist youth, and women opposed to neo-liberal globalisation.

11. The WSF 2013 meeting will be held in Tunisia.

Neoliberalism refers to economic liberalisation, free trade and open markets, privatisation, deregulation, and increasing the role of the private sector in modern society.

1. Social movements play a role in helping people make sense of the world around them and finding ways to deal with matters that trouble them.

2. Resistance to globalisation in India has come from different quarters.

3. There have been left-wing protests to economic liberalisation voiced through political parties as well as through forums like the Indian Social Forum.

4. Trade unions of the industrial workforce as well as those representing farmer interests have organised protests against the MNCs.

5.  The patenting of certain plants like Neem by American and European firms has also generated opposition.

6.  Resistance to globalisation has also come from the political right in the form of objecting to various cultural influences ranging from the availability of foreign TV channels to, the celebration of Valentine’s Day etc.


1. Globalisation and internationalisation have affected key global issues, for example, international trade, environment, human rights, refugees, technology communications and politics.

2.  Globalisation is worldwide interconnectedness through the flow of various kinds of ideas, capital, commodities and people moving from one country to another. Internationalism promotes peace and helps in solving problems like disease, global warming etc. and nations must work together.

3. Internationalism is related to international relations, with aspirations for the promotion of peace and understanding between nations.

4. Globalisation is influenced by and contributes to the global flow of the values of the free market.

5. Globalisation plays an important role in the promotion of internationalism.

1. The 1991 Program of Economic Reforms embarked upon deregulating various Sectors.
2. 1999 World Trade Organisation’s Ministerial Meeting convened
3. 2001 First World Social Forum meeting convened
4. 2004 Fourth World Social Forum meeting convened
5. 2007 Seventh World Social Forum meeting convened

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