Wednesday 19 June 2024

Class 11 Chapter 1: What is Psychology? | Questions and Answers #eduvictors #Class11Psychology

Class 11 Chapter 1: What is Psychology? | Questions and Answers

Class 11 Chapter 1: What is Psychology? | Questions and Answers #eduvictors #Class11Psychology
Question 1: What school of psychological thought focuses on breaking down mental processes into basic components?

Answer: Structuralism

Question 2: Which psychological approach emphasizes observable behaviour?

Answer: Behaviourism

Question 3: Who founded psychoanalysis?

Answer: Freud

Question 4: Define psychology.

Answer: Psychology is a modern discipline aimed at understanding the complexities of mental processes, experiences and behaviour of individuals in different contexts. It is treated as a natural as well as a social science.

Question 5: Which field of psychology studies the physiological bases of behaviour?

Answer: Biological

Question 6: What is the focus of cognitive psychology?

Answer: Thought

Question 7: What are the major schools of psychological thought and what is the focus of each?

Answer: The major schools of psychological thought include:

Structuralism: Focuses on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. It uses introspection to analyze the inner processes of the human mind.

Functionalism: Emphasizes the purpose of consciousness and behaviour, exploring how mental and behavioural processes function to enable people to adapt to their environments.

Behaviourism: Studies observable behaviour and the ways it can be learned and modified. It disregards mental states and focuses on the effects of the environment on behaviour.

Gestalt Psychology: Suggests that psychological phenomena must be viewed as organized, structured wholes, rather than the sum of their parts.

Psychoanalysis: Founded by Sigmund Freud, it focuses on unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experiences on behaviour.

Humanistic Psychology: Emphasizes personal growth, self-actualization, and the inherent goodness of people. It views human functioning as driven by a desire to grow and fulfil potential.

Cognitive Psychology: Studies mental processes such as perception, thinking, memory, and problem-solving. It sees thought processes as central to understanding psychological functions.

Question 8: Which psychological approach emphasizes personal growth and self-actualization?

Answer: Humanistic

Question 9: How does contemporary psychology's multivocal nature contribute to understanding human behaviour?

Answer: Contemporary psychology is characterized by a multitude of approaches that explain behaviour at different levels. This multivocal nature means that no single approach dominates, allowing for diverse perspectives that provide valuable insights into human functioning. For instance:

- The cognitive approach emphasizes the importance of thought processes in understanding psychological functions.

- The humanistic approach highlights the desire for growth and fulfilment of human potential.

These varied perspectives are not mutually exclusive and can complement each other, offering a more comprehensive understanding of the complexities of human behaviour.

Question 10: In which setting are educational psychologists commonly employed?

Answer: Schools

Question: What are some of the major specialised fields of psychology, and what do they focus on?

Answer: Major specialised fields of psychology include:

Cognitive Psychology: Focuses on mental processes such as perception, memory, and problem-solving.

Biological Psychology: Studies the physiological bases of behaviour in humans and animals.

Health Psychology: Explores how biological, psychological, and social factors affect health and illness.

Developmental Psychology: Examines the psychological growth of individuals throughout their lifespan.

Social Psychology: Investigates how individuals' thoughts, feelings, and behaviours are influenced by the actual or imagined presence of others.

Educational and School Psychology: Applies psychological principles to educational settings, addressing learning and behavioural issues.

Clinical and Counselling Psychology: Focuses on diagnosing and treating mental, emotional, and behavioural disorders.

Environmental Psychology: Studies the interactions between people and their physical surroundings.

Industrial/Organisational Psychology: Applies psychological theories to workplace environments to improve productivity and well-being.

Sports Psychology: Focuses on the psychological aspects of athletic performance and physical activity.

Question 11: What is a key concept in Gestalt psychology?

Answer: A key concept in Gestalt psychology is that we perceive the world in wholes, rather than just the sum of its parts.

Question 12: Which field of psychology focuses on the psychological aspects of athletic performance?

Answer: Sports

Question 13: Why is there a growing need for interdisciplinary initiatives in psychology, and what fields does it overlap with?

Answer: There is a growing need for interdisciplinary initiatives in psychology to achieve a better understanding of reality through collaboration across various disciplines. This approach enriches psychological research and application by incorporating diverse perspectives and methodologies. Psychology overlaps with:

Social sciences: Economics, political science, sociology.

Biosciences: Neurology, physiology, medicine.

Other fields: Mass communication, music, and fine arts.

These collaborations lead to fruitful research and practical applications, enhancing the ability to address complex issues and contribute to solving real-world problems.

Question 14: How does psychology contribute to solving real-world problems, and in what settings are psychologists employed?

Answer: Psychology contributes to solving real-world problems by applying theoretical knowledge to practical situations. Psychologists are employed in diverse settings, including:

Schools: Helping with learning and behavioural issues.

Hospitals: Assisting with mental health and rehabilitation.

Industries: Improving workplace productivity and employee well-being.

Training Institutes: Providing skills and personal development training.

Military and Government: Supporting personnel in stress management and operational efficiency.

Private Practice and Consultancy: Offering therapy and advice to individuals and organizations.

In these roles, psychologists help address issues ranging from mental health and educational challenges to organizational development and public policy, demonstrating the discipline's broad applicability and societal value.

Question 15: What is Behaviour? Explain different types of behaviour?

Answer: Behaviour is anything we do or any way we express ourselves. Psychologists say that any actions or reactions of a living being that can be seen are behaviour. In a broad sense, behaviour includes everything an individual does. Thoughts, dreams, muscle movements, gland responses, eating, and so on are all considered behaviours.

There are two types of behaviour: overt and covert. Overt behaviour includes all the visible and external actions that others can observe. Covert behaviour includes all the hidden and internal actions that are difficult to see directly.

Question 16: Write a short note on Gestalt Psychology.

Answer: The Gestalt approach to psychology was developed in Germany by Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Kohler. The word "gestalt" is German for "configuration," "whole," or "form." This school of thought believes that people perceive things as complete wholes rather than just a collection of parts. In other words, we see things in terms of their entirety. The Gestalt psychologists did much of their work on perception and learning.

Imagine you see a picture made up of lots of small dots. Even though it's just a bunch of dots, your brain puts them together to see a clear image, like a face or a shape. This is what Gestalt psychology is about – your mind seeing the whole picture instead of just the little dots.

Question 17: Define Neuropsychology

Answer: Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that studies how the brain and nervous system affect behaviour and cognitive functions. It combines neuroscience and psychology to understand how brain injuries or diseases impact mental processes and behaviour. Neuropsychologists often assess and treat individuals with brain disorders.

Note: The Greek symbol psi (Ψ) is used to represent psychology because it is the initial letter of the word "psyche." The word "psyche" comes from the Greek word "psyche," which means "soul" or "life."

Question 18: Why is psychology considered a discipline?

Answer: Psychology as Discipline

1. Psychology investigates behaviour, experiences, and mental processes to comprehend how the mind functions and how various mental processes influence behaviours. 

2. Individuals' perspectives and understanding shape their interpretations of others' behaviours and experiences. 

3. Psychologists strive to minimize biases by employing scientific and objective analyses or considering subjective viewpoints as essential to human experience. 

4. In the Indian tradition, introspection and analysis of conscious experiences are deemed crucial for psychological insight, a perspective increasingly recognized by Western psychologists. 

5. Despite diverse approaches, psychologists aim to comprehend and explain behaviour, mental processes, and experiences systematically and verifiably.

Question 19: Why is psychology considered a science?

Answer: Psychology as Science

1. Psychology has its origins in philosophy but has evolved into a science by applying the scientific method. 

2. Science values objectivity, which requires agreement on how to define and measure concepts. 

3. Psychology has been influenced by philosophers like Descartes and by developments in physics. 

4. It follows a hypothetico-deductive model, meaning that scientific progress relies on having theories to explain phenomena. 

For example, physicists use the Big Bang theory to explain the universe's formation. 

Question 20: Why is psychology considered a social science?

Answer: Psychology as a Social Science

1. Psychology is often seen as a social science because it studies how people behave within their social and cultural surroundings. 

2. For example, consider Ranjita and Shabnam, two classmates with different backgrounds. Ranjita, from a farming family, was outgoing and athletic, while Shabnam, whose father worked in town, was shy and artistic. When heavy rain flooded their village, Shabnam stayed with Ranjita's family and became close. 

3. Their story highlights how individuals' behaviours and experiences are influenced by their social and cultural environments. 

4. Psychology examines why people act differently in various situations, like helping during a crisis or behaving selfishly. 

5. This shows how psychology explores human behaviour within the context of society and culture, making it a social science focusing on individuals and communities in relation to their surroundings.

Activity 1.1

Question 21: Imagine and visualise yourself in the following situations. Mention three psychological processes involved in each situation.

1. You are writing an essay for a competition.

2. You are chatting with a friend on an interesting topic.

3. You are playing football.

4. You are watching a soap opera on TV.

5. Your best friend has hurt you.

6. You are appearing in an examination.

7. You are expecting an important visitor.

8. You are preparing a speech to deliver in your school.

9. You are playing chess.

10. You are trying to figure out the answer of a difficult mathematics problem.


1. Writing an essay for a competition:

Cognitive processes: Thinking, planning, and organizing ideas.

Emotional processes: Feeling motivated or anxious about the competition.

Attentional processes: Focusing on the task at hand and avoiding distractions.

2. Chatting with a friend on an interesting topic:

Social processes: Understanding and interpreting your friend's responses.

Emotional processes: Feeling engaged, excited, or empathetic towards your friend's viewpoints.

Cognitive processes: Generating ideas, expressing thoughts clearly, and maintaining the flow of conversation.

3. Playing football:

Motor processes: Coordinating movements to dribble, pass, and shoot the ball.

Cognitive processes: Making quick decisions, strategizing, and anticipating opponents' moves.

Emotional processes: Feeling competitive, motivated, and experiencing the highs and lows of the game.

4. Watching a soap opera on TV:

Emotional processes: Empathizing with characters, feeling suspense or excitement.

Cognitive processes: Following the storyline, predicting plot twists, and interpreting character motivations.

Attentional processes: Maintaining focus on the screen and immersing oneself in the fictional world

5. Your best friend has hurt you:

Emotional processes: Feeling hurt, betrayed, or angry.

Cognitive processes: Ruminating on the situation, understanding your friend's actions, and considering potential resolutions.

Social processes: Evaluating the impact on your friendship and deciding how to communicate your feelings

6. Appearing in an examination:

Cognitive processes: Recalling information, applying problem-solving strategies, and managing time effectively.

Emotional processes: Feeling nervous, anxious, or confident about your performance.

Attentional processes: Focusing on the questions, ignoring distractions, and staying concentrated throughout the exam.

7. Expecting an important visitor:

Emotional processes: Feeling excited, nervous, or anticipating the interaction.

Cognitive processes: Planning and preparing for the visit, considering topics of conversation or activities.

Social processes: Anticipating the visitor's arrival, imagining the interaction, and preparing to greet them warmly.

8. Preparing a speech to deliver in your school:

Cognitive processes: Researching the topic, organizing key points, and structuring the speech.

Emotional processes: Feeling confident, anxious, or excited about delivering the speech.

Attentional processes: Practicing the speech, rehearsing delivery, and focusing on maintaining audience engagement.

9. Playing chess:

Cognitive processes: Planning ahead, evaluating possible moves, and predicting opponents' strategies.

Emotional processes: Feeling competitive, focused, or frustrated during challenging moments.

Attentional processes: Concentrating on the game board, assessing various options, and adjusting strategies accordingly.

10. Trying to figure out the answer to a difficult mathematics problem:

Cognitive processes: Analyzing the problem, applying problem-solving techniques, and reasoning through potential solutions.

Emotional processes: Feeling frustrated, determined, or curious about finding the answer.

Attentional processes: Concentrating on the problem, blocking out distractions, and focusing on relevant information.

Question 22: What term describes psychology's multiple approaches to understanding behaviour?

Answer: Multivocal


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