Monday, 21 September 2020

Effect of exercise on Cardio Respiratory System - CBSE Class 12 Physical Education - Chapter 7: Physiology & Injuries in Sports (Questions and Answers)(#eduvictors)(#PhysicalEducation)

Effect of exercise on Cardio-Respiratory System - (Questions and Answers)

Class 12 Physical Education - Chapter 7: Physiology & Injuries in Sports 

Effect of exercise on Cardio Respiratory System - CBSE Class 12 Physical Education - Chapter 7: Physiology & Injuries in Sports (Questions and Answers)(#eduvictors)(#PhysicalEducation)


Q1: What are the physiological effects of physical activity/exercise on our organ systems?

Answer: Physical activity has numerous beneficial physiological effects on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems, but it also benefits the metabolic, endocrine, and immune systems.


Q2: What is cardiovascular endurance?

Answer: Cardiovascular endurance is how efficiently your heart, blood vessels, and lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to working muscles during physical activity.


Q3: What is cardiorespiratory endurance?

Answer: Cardiorespiratory endurance is the level at which your heart, lungs, and muscles work together when you’re exercising for a longer period of time.


Note: Cardiovascular is related to heart and blood vessels to transport blood. Cardiorespiratory includes both our heart and our lungs.


Q4: What is the effect of exercise on the cardiorespiratory system?

Answer: Whenever we perform any strenuous exercise, the demand for oxygen increases, therefore during exercise the supply of oxygen to the muscles is the urgent need as oxygen cannot be stored in muscles. Hence heart functions faster to increase the systemic circulation as well as the pulmonary circulation.


Q5(MCQ): Endurance is determined by which physiological factor?
(a) Aerobic capacity 
(b) Flexibility
(c) Age, gender 
(d) Injuries.


Answer: (a) Aerobic capacity


Q6: What are the physiological factors that determine the (cardiorespiratory) endurance as a component of physical fitness?

Answer: Aerobic Capacity: Following are the factors
   - Oxygen intake
   - Oxygen uptake
   - oxygen transport
   - Energy Reserve

Anaerobic capacity: Factors that determine anaerobic capacity are:
   - Storage in the body of ATP and CP (phosphagen stock)
   - Buffer capacity - in muscles lactic acid accumulation ineffective
   - Endurance of lactic acid


Q7: What are the immediate effects of exercise or cardiorespiratory system?

Answer
① Heart Rate increases during exercise.
② Blood Pressure increases during Exercise
③ Stroke Volume increases
④ Cardiac Output Increases
⑤ Respiratory Rate Increases
⑥ Oxygen Transport Increases
⑦ Increase in vital air capacity
⑧ Increase in Residual air volume
⑨ Passive Alveolus become Active


Effect of exercise on Cardio Respiratory System - CBSE Class 12 Physical Education - Chapter 7: Physiology & Injuries in Sports (Questions and Answers)(#eduvictors)(#PhysicalEducation)



① Heart Rate increases during exercise.
The heart rate increases with the intensity of exercise. The normal heart rate is 72 beats per minute and can rise up to 200 beats per minute. It is also observed that an increase in heart rate is comparatively slow in trained persons.

② Blood Pressure increases during Exercise
During strenuous exercise systolic blood pressure increases, whereas diastolic blood pressure changes to a small extent.

③ Stroke Volume increases
The normal stroke volume is between 70 ml and 80 ml. per beat in a trained male athlete. During strenuous activity, it may reach up to 160 ml. per beat.

④ Cardiac Output Increases
The Cardiac output also increases with physical exercise because with exercise heart rate as well as stroke volume increases.

⑤ Respiratory Rate Increases
During the exercise, the increased demand for oxygen increases the rate of breathing. The normal resting breathing rate of an adult is about 14 per minute. During strenuous exercise, it can increase to 32 per minute.

⑥ Oxygen Transport Increases
The demand for oxygen is increased during the exercise and this is transported to the muscle by an increase in respiration rate during exercise.

⑦ Increase in vital air capacity
It is the amount of air which an individual can inhale and exhale with maximum effect. its capacity varies from 3500 cc. Due to exercise, its capacity increases up to 5500 cc.

⑧ Increase in Residual air volume
Dut to regular exercise increases the capacity of residual volume from normal capacity.

⑨ Passive Alveolus become Active
Regular exercise activates the unused alveolus because much amount of O₂ is required in the prolonged exercise of daily routine.


Q8: What are the long term effects of exercise or cardiorespiratory system?

Answer: Due to long term training many adaptational developments take place in our body, these are:
① Heart size increases (Cardiac Hypertrophy)
② Resting heart rate decreases
③ Stroke volume increase
④ Cardiac output
⑤ Increase in number of functioning capillaries
⑥ Total blood volume
⑦ Vital Capacity Increases
⑧ Tidal Volume (TV) increases
⑨ Diffusion Capacity Increases


① Heart size increases (Cardiac Hypertrophy)
The effect of exercise is a well-established fact. The heart hypertrophy takes place. In endurance-trained athlete cardiac hypertrophy is found more. The bigger heart is also called the athletic heart. It is found to be more in distance runners and swimmers.

② Resting heart rate decreases
As a result of long term training programme the resting heart rate decreases. The basal heart rate is less in trained persons as compared to untrained. The basal heart rate is less in endurance-trained athlete due to increase in heart size and stroke volume.

③ Stroke volume increase
Stroke volume is higher in trained persons as compared to untrained. In an untrained person, the normal stroke volume is 70-75 ml. per beat whereas endurance-trained athletes have normal stroke volume 100 to 115 ml. per beat. The maximal stroke volume for an endurance-trained athlete may reach up to 170 ml. per beat, whereas maximal stroke volume for untrained can reach up to 120 ml per beat.

④ Cardiac output
The cardiac output is more in a trained athlete as compared to untrained.

⑤ Increase in number of functioning capillaries
Training leads to an increase in the number of functioning capillaries resulting in the better systemic circulation.

⑥ Total blood volume
The total blood volume in untrained is less as compared to training.

⑦ Vital Capacity Increases
Vital capacity is defined as the maximum amount of air that a person is capable of expelling from their lungs after maximum inhalation. Normal adults have a vital capacity between 3-5 L. However exercising increases the vital capacity to 5-6 L.

⑧ Tidal Volume (TV) increases
The volume of air breathed in and out at rest is known as the tidal volume (TV). This is found to be about 500 ml in an averagely built healthy young adult. The tidal volume also increases after long term training.

⑨ Diffusion Capacity Increases
In trained person diffusion through alveolar-capillary membrane is increased. This development is mainly due to an increase in the number of functioning alveoli and pulmonary capillaries.


Q9(MCQs): Cardiac output is
 (A) Blood pumped by the heart per minute
 (B) Blood pumped per heart bead
 (C) Blood pumped per minute during intense exercise
 (D) Blood pumped per hour.

Answer: (A) Blood pumped by the heart per minute


Q10(MCQs): Taking is oxygen from the atmosphere into the body is known as?
  (a) Exhalation 
  (b) Inhalation
  (c) Stroke value 
  (d) Aerobic capacity

Answer: (b) Inhalation


Q11: What are the effects of exercise on the cardiovascular system?

Answer:
① Improves oxygen delivery
② Increases cellular respiration (mitochondrial activities) help in building up stronger muscle and cardiac tissues.
③ Causes a long-term anti-inflammatory effect
④ Reduces chances of cardiac arrest.


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