Saturday, 10 July 2021

CBSE Class 10 - History - The Rise Of Nationalism in Europe ( Questions - Answers)(#class10SocialScience)(#class10History)(#eduvictors)(#cbsenotes)

CBSE Class 10 - History -
The Rise Of Nationalism in Europe
( Questions - Answers)

CBSE Class 10 - History - The Rise Of Nationalism in Europe ( Questions - Answers)(#class10SocialScience)(#class10History)(#eduvictors)(#cbsenotes)


Q1: Define nationalism.

Answer: The expression of Nationalism was brought about by the French revolution in 1789. Nationalism developed a sense of common identity and shared past or descent. Political movements and struggles by the leaders led to the current commonness. It emerged as a force to unify people which later led to the emergence of the nation-state.


Q2: Who was Frederic Sorrieu? 

Answer: He was a French artist famous for a series of four prints prepared in 1848 that visualised the dream of a world consisting of ‘Democratic and Social Republics’.


Q3: Duke Metternich was the Chancellor of which country?

Answer: Duke Metternich was the Chancellor of Austria. He hosted the Vienna Congress in 1815.


Q4: Who was Otto Von Bismarck?

Answer: Otto von Bismarck was the architect of a Prussian consolidation that was also a form of German unification. Once the empire was established, he actively and skillfully pursued pacific policies in foreign affairs, succeeding in preserving the peace in Europe for about two decades.


Q5: What decisions were taken at the Congress of Vienna?

Answer: The Vienna Congress hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich in 1815 took several decisions It revoked the changes brought about by Napolean. The territories annexed by Napolean were given to Russia, Prussia, and Austria. The Bourbon Dynasty was restored to power. A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in the future. Thus, all the monarchies that were overthrown by Napolean were restored and a new conservative order was created in Europe.


Q6: Define Plebiscite.

Answer: The direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public question such as a change in the constitution.


Q7: Which treaty recognised Greece as an independent nation?

Answer: The Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 marked the end of the Greek War of Independence and recognised Greece as an independent nation. The treaty was signed between Britain, France, and Russia on one side and the Ottoman Empire on the other side. Leopold stepped down as the claimant of the Greece throne.



Q8: What does Liberal Nationalism mean?

Answer

●  Individual freedom 

●  Equality before law 

●  Government by consent 

●  Freedom of markets 

●  Abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.



Q9: Why the 1830s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe? 


Answer: It is because of the following reasons:

● Due to the enormous population growth, there was a high demand for employment 

● People from rural areas migrated to cities. Thus it leads to overcrowding.

● Cheap goods imported from England gave stiff competition to small producers.



Q10: Who was Giuseppe Mazzini?

Answer: Giuseppe Mazzini, a famous Italian revolutionary was born in 1807 in Genoa. He was part of a secret society called Carbonari and founded two underground societies called Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.



Q11: What was the allegory of France called?

Answer: Marianne was the allegory of France. She wore a red cap with a tricolour cockade. The image portrayed the ideas of Liberty, Justice, and Republic. Her statues were erected in public squares as a symbol of national unity and to persuade others to identify with it. Marianne images were also marked on coins and stamps.



Q12: What were the main points of the Civil Code of 1804 aka Napoleonic Code?

Answer: 

● It denied privileges based on birth. This established equality before the law and secured the right to property.

● Napoleon simplified administrative divisions and abolished the feudal system.

● He freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues. In towns, guild restrictions were removed.

● Transport and communication systems were Improved.

● Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed newfound freedom.



Q13: What was the reaction to the Napoleonic Code? 

OR

How did the local people in the areas conquered by Napoleon react to French rule? Explain.


Answer: Napoleonic Code was the French Civil Code established under Napoleon in 1804. It produced mixed reactions from the French people.

● Initially, there was great enthusiasm among the people. In many places such as Holland and Switzerland, the French armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty.

● But later these reactions turned into hostility. Because political freedom was limited due to censorship and forced conscription into the armies.



Q14: Define Romanticism.

Answer: A cultural movement that rejected science and reason and introduced heart and emotions. The concern of the romantics was to create a sense of shared collective heritage and a common cultural past for arousing nationalism.



Q15: Explain the contribution of Giuseppe Mazzini in spreading revolutionary ideas in Europe.

Answer: Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary, born in Genoa in 1807. He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. Later he himself founded two secret societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and the second, Young Europe in Berne, to spread his revolutionary ideas. He believed that nations are natural units of mankind and thus should not be fragmented into smaller states and kingdoms. He sought to unify Italy into a single republic that could form the basis of Italian liberty. He relentlessly opposed the monarchy and brought insight into his vision of a democratic republic. He also attempted to bring revolution in Liguria in 1831.



Q16: Describe the unification of Germany.

Answer: 

1. Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament.

2. This liberal initiative to nation-building was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia.

3. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification.

4. Its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.

5. Three wars over seven years - with Austria, Denmark and France - ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William was proclaimed German emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.



Q17: Explain the role of language in developing nationalist sentiments in Europe.

Answer: Language aroused the national sentiments in Europe. For instance, the Grimm brothers collected folktales within the German language to oppose French domination and make a German national identity.

The vernacular language carried the nationalist message to a large number of illiterate populations. In Poland, even after its partition, the nationalist feeling was kept alive through language. The imposition of the Russian language on the Polish people faced heavy resistance. Russian domination was also challenged by Clergy in Poland. It issued all religious instructions in Polish. As a result, many priests and bishops were put in jail. Thus, language became a weapon of national resistance and a symbol of the struggle against Russian domination.


Q18: Who was Carl Welcker?

Answer: Carl Welcker, a member of the Frankfurt Parliament, had tremendous reservations against equal rights for women, and he ridiculed their demands as being against nature.


Q19: “Italy had a long history of political fragmentation”.

Answer: Italy was divided into seven states and Italians were scattered over several dynasties as well as the multi-national Habsburg Empire. Only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house. Else the whole of Italy was ruled by small monarchies. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain. Even the Italian language did not have a complete unified form as there were many regional and local variations. Thus, Italy was politically fragmented. During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini sought to unify Italy into a Republic. Under the leadership of Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italy was unified in 1861. And finally, Victor Emmanuel II became the king of unified Italy.


Q20: Who was Count Camillo di Cavour?

Answer: The Chief Minister of Piedmont, Count Camillo di Cavour, helped the king in forming an alliance with France, and they defeated the Austrian forces in 1859. Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, Isolabella and Leri, generally known as Cavour, was an Italian statesman and a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification.



Q21: Who were the ‘liberal’? What ideas were supported by them?

Answer: 

● In the early 19th century, Europe was closely related to the ideology of liberalism.

● The term liberalism is derived from the Latin word liber which means free.

● Liberalism means freedom of the individual and equality of everyone before the law.

● It focused on the concept of the government by consent.

● It also promoted the right to vote and to get elected was generated only by the property-owning men.

● Men without property and all the women did not have any political rights.

● This section of the society organised movements demanding equal political rights.

● It also abolished all the restrictions imposed by states on the movements of goods and capital.

● New commercial classes had grown and they demanded the creation of unified economic territory allowing the free movement of goods and capital.

● The union abolished all the tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from 30 to 2


Q22: Write briefly about the political condition in Europe in the 1870s.


Answer: The political conditions of Europe in the 18th century are mentioned below:

● Nationalism did not have its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment in the first half of the 18th century.

● Nationalist groups had become had narrow creeds with limited ends. 

● They were no longer trusting or tolerant of each other.

● The most serious source of nationalist tension in 1871 was in the Balkans. 

● It was a region of geographical and ethnic variations.

● One by one its European nationalities broke away from its control and declare independence.

● It became an area of intense conflict.

● The Balkans states formed a high degree of rivalry among them.

● But the idea that societies should be organised into nation’s states was accepted as natural and universal.


Q23: Define Imperialism

Answer: A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonisation, use of military force, or other means.


Q24: Ideas of national unity in early 19th century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. Who favoured the ideology of liberalism? What value can be derived from the term ‘liberalism’?


Answer: 

● Liberals began a revolution in the 1848 period. They began many national movements pioneered by the educated middle class.

● They stood for the freedom of individuals and equality of all before the law.

● Politically, the idea of liberalism advocated for a constitutional and represented government through Parliament.

● It supported the ideas of national unity and the abolition of aristocratic power.

● It did not promote the idea of universal suffrage.

● Socially, it supported the freedom of individuals and equality of all before the law.

● Economically, it focused on freedom on the market and abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movements of goods and capital.

● It abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies. A new system of weights and measures was introduced.


Q25: Describe the meaning of the following symbols.

● Broken chains 

● Breastplate with eagle 

● Crown of oak leaves 

● Sword 

● Olive branch around the sword 

● Black, red and gold tricolour 

● Rays of the rising sun 


Answer:

● Broken chains – Liberty (being freed)

● Breastplate with eagle – Strength (Symbol of the German empire)

● Crown of oak leaves – Heroism

● Sword – Readiness to fight

● Olive branch around the sword – Willingness to make peace

● Black, red and gold tricolour – Flag of the liberal nationalists in 1848 banned by the Dukes of the German States. 

● Rays of the rising sun – beginning of a new era.


Q26: Describe the conditions that led to the formation of the British Nation-State.

Answer: The following are the conditions that led to the formation of the British Nation State:

(a) The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones - such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.

(b) All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands.

(e) The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged.

(d) The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain' meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland.

(e) The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members.


👉See Also:

History - Rise of Nationalism in Europe (Important Terms)
History - Rise of Nationalism in Europe (MCQs)
History - Rise of Nationalism in Europe (Online Quiz)
History - Rise of Nationalism in Europe (Question Bank)


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