Sunday, 7 July 2013



Industrial Revolution led to pathetic conditions
for women and children.

Q1: What are guilds?

Answer: Guilds are associations of craftsmen or merchants following same craft and practices to protect the members interest, supervise the standard of work and regulate prices.

Q2: Define Fuller

Answer: Fuller is a person who fulls or gathers cloth by pleating.

Q3: Why did the import of raw cotton increase in Britain in late 18th century?

Answer: In 1767 the import of raw cotton increased in Britain due to rapid increase in production and mechanisation of the processes of production.

Q4: What do you mean by Proto Industrialization?

Answer: The early phase of industrialisation in which large scales of production took place to meet international market demands at decentralized units but not at factories.

In urban areas the units were controlled by craft guilds while in rural areas merchants had setup their own production units. The proto-industrial system was prevalent in England and some otehr parts of Europe much before the concept of factories came up.

Q5 Why did the people of rural side accept the offer made by the merchants?

Answer: The people from rural side accepted the offer made by the merchants due to the following reasons:
  1. Open fields and common lands were disappearing for the poor peasants and small farmers who had depended upon these lands for their livelihood.
  2. They had to now look for alternative sources of income. Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide sufficient work for all members of the household. So when merchants came around and offered advances to produce  goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed.
  3. Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. 
  4. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.

Q6(MCQ): When did the earliest factories come up in England?

(a) 1720s
(b) 1730s
(c) 1740s
(d) 1750s

Answer: (b) 1730s

Q7: Who invented Spinning Jenny?

Answer: Spinning Jenny was invented by James Hargreaves in 1764.

Q8: Name the European who created first cotton mill?

Answer: Richard Arwright

Q9: How did the new inventions and technology helped in setting up the Factory concept?

Answer: New inventions and technology helped in setting up the Factory concept though the pace of Industrial change was not rapid.
  1. New inventions and technology increased the efficacy of each step of production process.
  2. It enhanced the production output per worker.
    It made production of stronger threads and yarn.

Q10: What were the advantages of cotton mill?

Answer: Following were the merits of cotton mill:
production process was carefully supervised and monitored.
Quality of production could be controlled.
Labour could be managed and supervied easily.

Q11: Why were merchants not able to expand production within the towns of England?

Answer: Merchants were not able to expand production within the urban areas of England for the following reasons:
  1. Town or Urban Crafts and Trade guilds were extremely powerful.
  2. The guild control the prices as well as manufacturing.
  3. They did not let any outsider/merchant to trade and control local market without their permission.

Q12(NCERT): Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny. Explain.
Q: Why did the workers in Britain attack the Spinning Jenny?

Answer: The Spinning Jenny which was invented in 1764, sped up the sinning process and reduced
labour demands considerably. The fear of unemployment among the women workers who had been earning by hand spinning turned them hostile towards the machine. It prompted them to attack the Spinning Jenny. 

Q13: During Victorian Age how was the life of workers?

Answer: Life of workers during Victorian age:

  1. There was no shortage of human labour, so the wages were low.
  2. Demand for job was seasonal.
  3. Possibility of getting a job depended on networks.
  4. Workers had fear of unemployment and they were hostile towards new technology.
  5. Living conditions were bad.
  6. After 1840 due to infrastructural improvement led to new opportunities for employment.

Q14: Before the age of machine and industries, how Indian Textile industry was performing? What happened to it after European countries tried to setup their colony?

  1. Before the machine age, the Indian textile industry specially cotton and silk goods dominated the international market.
  2. Indian merchants and bankers were involved in the export trade of textiles.
  3. Later arrival  of Europeans traders like East India Company broke down the network of exports controlled by Indian merchants. 
  4. It led to decline of old ports like Surat and Hoogly, and growth of new industrial towns like Bombay and Calcutta.

Q15: Who was a jobber? What were his functions?

Answer: Industrialists employed a jobber to hire new recruits for their factories. Usually the jobber was an old and trusted worker. He generally performed the following duties:

  1. He lured people from his village ensuring them jobs. He also helped them settle in the city and lent them money in time of crisis.
  2. Slowly Jobbers became persons with authority and power. They started demanding money and gifts against the favors they did and started controlling the lives of workers.

Q16: How did the seasonality of employment affect the lives of workers?

Answer: Seasonality of employment badly affected the lives of workers in the following ways:
  • It prolonged the period of unemployment and the poor workers came to streets again.
  • A few of them went back to countryside.
  • Most of them looked for odd jobs in cities.

Q17(MCQ): Which one of the following factories was considered as a symbol of new era in England in the late eighteenth century?

(a) Iron and steel 
(b) Metal
(c) Jute 

(d) Cotton

Answer: (d) Cotton

Q18: Why did Cotton and textile become the chief industry in England?

Answer: Cotton textile became England‘s chief industry because:
  1. England had climate favorable for the cotton textile industry.
  2. Cotton textile industries had already been started since the middle of 16th Century in England.
  3. Ores and coal required for machines and factories were available in plenty.
  4. Cotton was also easily available to England from her colonies.

(In progress...)


  1. Are these questions really going to cum in the exams

    1. Plz DO NOT use the word 'cum' ever. It is come.

    2. Cum means something different

    3. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    4. There is no meaning of cum .there's even no word existing



  4. What are non mechanised sector

  5. nice but didn't allow me to copy

  6. nice but didn't allow me to copy

  7. This comment has been removed by the author.

  8. Replies
    1. I hope that atleast one is going to come in the exams

  9. These are really very helpful

  10. This comment has been removed by the author.

  11. Persauded is done by me on study

  12. Persauded is done by me on study

  13. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

  14. Thanks for this!

  15. This comment has been removed by the author.


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