Sunday 6 September 2015

NCERT Solution Class 10 - Social Science - CH3 : Democracy and Diversity

Democracy and Diversity

NCERT Chapter Solutions for CBSE Class 10 Political Science  

NCERT Solution Class 10 - Social Science - CH3 : Democracy and Diversity

Q1: Some Dalit groups decided to participate in the UN Conference against racism in Durban in 2001, demanding the inclusion of caste in the agenda of this conference. Here are three reactions to this move:

Amandeep Kaur (a government official): Our Constitution declares caste discrimination to be illegal. If some caste discrimination continues, it is an internal matter. I am opposed to this being raised in an international forum. 

Oinam (a sociologist) : I am opposed to this because caste and race are not similar divisions. Caste is social division, while race is a biological one. Raising caste in this conference on racism would mean equating the two.

Ashok (a Dalit activist) : The argument about internal matter is  a way of preventing open discussion of oppression and discrimination. Race is not purely biological. It is as much a legal and sociological category as caste. Caste discrimination must be raised in this conference.

Which of the three opinions do you agree with most and why?

Answer: I agree with Ashok's views. We should not prevent people from an open discussion of oppression and discrimination just for the sake of internal state matter. We can't discriminate people and divide them based on intellectual grounds. We can't be a democratic nation and a free society, if there is oppression and discrimination in our society. Open debates is one of the indicator of a democratic society which values equality.

Q2: I met this group of girls from Pakistan and felt that I had more in common with them than many girls from other parts of my own country. Is this anti-national to feel so?

Answer: No. It is not anti-national to feel so.  It is quite common that people belong to different regions or nations can have common liking and interests. For example, the girls from Pakistan may like Hollywood movies, south Indian food and Thai food like any other girl from India.

Q3: A Cartoon like  this can be read by different people to mean different things. What does this  cartoon mean to you? How do other students in your class read this?

Answer: The giant in the cartoon is going to cut his black colour hand which is different from his other white hand. His small head reflects that he fails to realize that this stupid act would cripple him for life. It definitely reflects how a narrow minded society can harm itself by keeping a biased discrimination among its own people.
Other students in my class may have different opinions or perspectives.

Q3: Read these three poems by Dalit writers. Why do you think the poster is titled ‘Hidden Apartheid’?

Answer: These poems reflect that atrocities on Dalits and discrimination based on caste still exist in one way or other despite having laws to check such exploits.

Q4: Imrana is a student of class X, section B. She and all her classmates are planning to help students of class XI in giving a farewell party to the students of class XII. Last month she played for section team in a game of kho-kho against the team of class X, section A. She goes back home in a bus  and joins all  the students from various classes all of who come from trns- Yamuna area in Delhi. Back home, she often joins her elder sister, naima, in complaining against her brother who does no work at home, while the sisters are asked to help their mother. Her father is looking for a good match for her elder sister, from  a Muslim family with a similar economic status, from their own ‘biradari’.

Can you list the various kinds of identities that Imrana has?

At home She is a girl
In terms of religion                 She is __________
In the school         She is __________
_____________ She is __________
_____________ She is __________

Answer: Imrana has different identities in different contexts:

  At home She is a girl
In terms of religion She is Muslim
In the school She is a class X student
In class X She is from section B
In the game She is a member of kho-kho team
In the family She is Naima’s younger sister.

Q5: Do you think Mahashweta is right? Do you know of some community in your area who is treated like the Romas?

Answer: Yes, Mahashweta is right when she says that it was a story of our own country. Such discrimination is observed on many accounts e.g. people of minority community do not get rented houses.

Q6: Have you heard people say things similar to what Yordanka or Modruzeni say here? If yes, try to think of what the story would sound like if you heard it from other side?

Answer: Yes many people behave as Yordanka or Modruzeni did. We must mend our behaviour while dealing with the deprived people. We should realize that various social and economic factors are responsible for these pathetic conditions and must give equal chances to the marginalised to improve.

Q7: Do you think the Bulgarian government should try to ensure that the Roma people dress and behave like other people from Bulgaria?

Answer: No. Bulgarian government should not try this. A democratic society or nation gives freedom to its people to dress the way they like unless it harms others.

Q8: What does the graffiti here tell about the conflict in the society?

Answer: The graffiti tells in 1960s the society used to discriminate people based on colour and origin. In 2005 people have realized and they do not see such social differences are source of danger. They have learnt to accommodate people of diverse cultures and origins.

Q9: Can you think of some examples of social division or discrimination in the field of sports?

 1. Decades ago, South African team did not allow Blacks in their cricket and sports teams.
 2. Even many sports teams in India, there is inequality in funding and provision of facilities to women teams as compared to men teams.

Q10: Discuss three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions.

Answer: Following three factors are crucial in determining the outcome of politics of social division:

(i) People perception to their identities: If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate.
If people see that they have multiple identities in different contexts and all these identities complement to their national identity, it us much easier to reconcile and accommodate different communities.

(ii) Political Parties Approach to Communities: If Political parties raise their demands to a particular parties at the cost of identities of other communities. Like it happened in Sri Lanka, it led to deficiet of trust among communities and led to civil unrest. However, it is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework.

(iii) Government Role to the demands of different groups: If the state rulers share power and accommodate reasonable demands of minority communities that are within constitutional framework, social divisions become would be less threatening for the country. But, if they try to suppress such a demand in the name of national unity, it may lead to political and civil unrest within a nation.

Q11: When does a social difference become a social division?

Answer: Social difference means difference in people based on language, colour, origin and race. When some social difference overlaps and one of them becomes prominent it often led to a social division. This further leads to tension and conflicts between the communities. e.g. In Northern Ireland, social differences of class and religion overlap each other. The religious differences become more prominent and led to conflicting situation between the two religious groups.

Q12: How do social divisions affect politics? Give two examples. 

Answer: Social divisions affect politics in numerous ways. Often it plays a major role in the political arena. Here are a few examples:

1. If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate. For example, people in Ireland saw themselves as only Catholic or Protestant, their differences were difficult to reconcile. In India, many people vote to a particular candidate because that person belongs to their religion or caste. It often leads to election of corrupt and dishonest person.

2. If rulers or governments of a state are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority communities, social divisions become less vulnerable. In our country, the secular constitutional framework has led to a social and communal harmony among people of different religions and communities.

Q 13:  _________social difference create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions._______ social differences do not usually lead to conflicts.

Answer: Overlapping, cross-cutting.

Q14: In dealing with social divisions and tensions which one of the following statements is NOT correct about democracy?
(a) Due to political competition in a democracy social divisions get reflected in politics.
(b) In a democracy it is possible for communities to voice their  grievances in a peaceful manner.
(c) Democracy is the best way to accommodate social diversity.
(d) Democracy always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.

Answer: (d) Democracy always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.

Q 15: Consider the following three statements.
A. Social divisions take place   when social differences overlap. 
B.  It is possible that a person can have multiple identities.
C. Social divisions exist  in only big countries like India.

Which of the statements is/are correct?
(a) A, B and C
(b) A and B
(c) B and C
(d) Only C

Answer:   (b) A and  B.

Q 16: Arrange the following statements in a logical sequence and select the right answers by using the code given below.
A. But all political expression of social divisions need  be always dangerous.
B. Socials divisions of one kind or the other exist in most countries.
C. Parties try to win political support by appealing to social divisions.
D. Some social differences may  result in social divisions. 

Answer: (a) D, B, C, A

Q 17: Among the following, which country suffered disintegration due to  political fights on the basis of religious and ethnic identities?
(a) Belgium
(b) India
(c) Yugoslavia
(d) Netherlands

Answer: Yugoslavia

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